A typical biometric system comprises of some components and processes. These include the following:
Sensor: This is a device that collects or detects data or trait, and converts it into a digital format.
Signal Processing Algorithms: These are Quality Control Performers that manipulate the signals received into a biometric template.
Data Storage: The data gotten from the Biometric registration are stored for preservation. From here, it can be retrieved at any time for comparison with the subject being identified.
Matching Algorithm: This refers to the comparison of a newly formed biometric template with the one or more templates created from the previously stored information in data storage.
Decision Process: Results obtained from the matching algorithms are used to make a decision that is either assisted by a person or automated. It is a system level decision.
Some of the techniques of capturing Biometric identification include the following:
Facial Recognition: This is the Biometric system used for the recognition and identification of the human face in order to allow for distinguishing one person from another. Facial expressions are also considered for facial recognition. The area of the face captured in this case include the forehead, the eyes, the ears, the nose, the lips, chin, neck and a little below the shoulder. Pictures and thermals are used for this purpose.
Fingerprint Reading: Each individual possess a unique set of fingerprints. No two individuals have the same fingerprints. Fingerprints are recognized by the different patterns of ridges, valleys and minutiae points present on the surface of fingers. These are captured with the help of a sensor for each individual for Biometric identification purposes.
Iris Recognition: The Iris of each individual also possesses unique patterns and color. A sensor also captures this for Biometric identification purposes. In some very high security areas in Europe and America, access to some sensitive areas can only be made through Iris Recognition.
Voice Recognition: The vocal tract of an individual is also unique. This is why it is easy to know the voice of someone you know talking without seeing that person. A sensor also captures this and it is used mostly for voice recognition and verification.
Hand Geometry Recognition: This is a Biometric technique in which various features of the hand, such as the width of hand and length of fingers are considered for identifying an individual.
Signature Recognition: Identification of an individual is done by analyzing signatures made by every person.
Veins Recognition: One revolutionary Biometric identification system is the use of different patterns of veins in a human body for identification of that person.
DNA Matching: Another revolutionary Biometric identification technique used in identifying a person is on the basis of unique characteristics of the the DNA of that person.