In 2010, the World Health Assembly adopted resolution 63.18 to recognize viral hepatitis as a global health problem. ] In response, the WHO developed a four-prong strategy aimed at raising awareness/mobilizing resources, policy, preventing transmission and screening and treatment. While 180 countries included Hepatitis B vaccination as part of their routine vaccination schedule and the worldwide coverage approached 80% in 2011, disparities remain between developed and developing countries.
Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest population in the world; with children and young adults constituting the bulk of these numbers. It is also a low-middle income nation, with gross national income per capita purchasing power parity (PPP) of $2290. Moreover, it has relatively low life expectancy at birth of 54 years.  It is also the country with the third highest burden of HIV in the world. While HIV has decimating effect on the socioeconomic fabric of the country; HBV could lead to chronic liver disease and cancer of the liver and ultimately early death marked by loss of able-bodied young adults. Both diseases are share common means of transmission. There have been positive results following various interventions aimed at curbing the burden of HIV in Nigeria as evident by a sustained decline in HIV prevalence. Thus, it should be envisaged that proper implementation of interventions such as early immunization and screening of high risk groups could further reduce HBV burden as well as improve Nigeria’s socioeconomic indices.