SOYA BEANS PRODUCTION IN NIGERIA;
Soybean is a species of legume, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse.
Nigeria is the largest producer of soybean in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Soya beans is mostly produced in the middle belt with Benue state accounting for the highest production in Nigeria.
Some of the states producing soya beans in Nigeria include Kwara, Kogi, Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Nassarawa, Kaduna, Niger, Bauchi, Ogun, and Taraba states.
Other states are Adamawa, Abia, Enugu, Anambra, Jigawa, Lagos, Plateau, Ekiti and the Federal Capital Territory.
Nigeria presently produces about 500,000 MT of Soybean annually.
The recommended dates for planting soybean in different ecological zones in Nigeria are: southern region could start planting by early June or early July while northern Nigeria starts in mid-June or early July.
Apart from making oil and animal feeds, large quantities of soya beans are consumed by many households producing soya milk and cake called ‘awara’ in the North.
A by-product from the oil production (soybean cake) is used as a high-protein animal feed. Soybean also improves soil fertility by adding nitrogen from the atmosphere.
This is a major benefit in African farming systems, where soils have become exhausted by the need to produce more food for increasing populations, and where fertilizers are hardly available and are expensive for farmers.
The price of soybean varies with location, but the average price of a ton of soybean is N160,000.
During processing, the soybeans are cracked to remove the hull and then rolled into full-fat flakes. The rolling process disrupts the oil cells, facilitating solvent extraction of the oil. After the oil has been extracted, the solvent is removed, and the flakes are dried, creating defatted soy flakes.
While most of the defatted soy flakes are further processed into soybean meal for animal feeding, the flakes can be ground to produce soy flour, sized to produce soy grits or texturized to produce textured vegetable protein (TVP) for food uses. Further processing can produce high protein food ingredients such as soy protein concentrates and isolated soy protein.
These ingredients have functional and nutritional applications in various types of bakery, dairy and meat products, infant formulas and the so-called new generation soy foods. Due to this difference in soybean use, two different types of soybeans have emerged: food beans and oil beans
Soybeans are generally packed in bags made of either jute, cotton fibers, or plastic. The type of bag determines the height of the stacks.
Generally, the bags are stacked on wooden platforms called pallets, in order to prevent direct contact of bags with the floor.
The free space between the top layer of the stacks and the top of the storehouse should be at least 1 meter. Sometimes, small-farmers keep small quantities of soybeans in sealed containers for self-consumption.
Soybeans are stored in a manner to be readily available and of high quality. The main objectives of soybean storage are to permit deferred soybean use, to ensure seed availability for the next crop cycle, to guarantee regular and continuous supplies of raw soybeans for processing industries and to balance the supply and demand of soybean, thereby stabilizing its market price.
Depending on the variety, soybeans can be harvested between 100 and 150 days after planting. Labor requirements are high since most cultivation and harvesting are done manually.
CHALLENGES IN PRODUCTION
Problems include pod shattering that reduces seed longevity, and production and distribution difficulties. Dual-purpose improved varieties of soybean have not reached many soybean growers to increase production.