The History Of Nigerian Independence
Archeological research demonstrates that individuals were at that point living in south-western Nigeria, particularly Iwo-Eleru in display day Ondo State from as right on time as 11000 BC, and maybe prior at Ugwuelle-Uturu, Okigwe in show day Imo State.
The Nok individuals, celebrated for their earthenware models are accepted to have lived on the Jos Plateau between 500 BC and 200 AD, trailed by the Kanuris, the Hausas, and in this manner the Fulanis, who moved toward the northern piece of the nation from the Senegal River valley.
Prior to the British went to the piece of West Africa now called Nigeria, there were a few kingdoms and self-administering states. North of the Niger waterway, there was the Hausa Kingdom which included seven states – Daura, Kano, Katsina, Zazzau (Zaria), Gobir, Rano and Biram, the Kanem Bornu Empire, and the Borgu Kingdom among the mainstream ones.
South of the Niger, there was the Benin Empire, the Nri Kingdom of the Igbos, and the Oyo Empire of the Yorubas among the prevalent ones.
Landing of the British
By the 1600s, even before the landing of the British, the beach front areas of what is currently advanced Nigeria had built up exchange relations with Europeans. Individuals of these districts exchanged people (these were taken as slaves to the Americas), and when slave exchange was nullified, they exchanged palm oil, timber and so on in return for what the Europeans brought.
Lagos (Eko in Yoruba) was caught by British powers in 1851 and turned into a state in 1861. In 1884, Calabar went under the assurance of the British and was the capital of the Niger Coast protectorate until 1906. In 1897, the Benin Empire tumbled to the British and furthermore turned into a state.
In 1886, the Royal Niger Company was contracted under the authority of Sir Geroge Taubman Goldie, and in 1900, the domain under the control of this organization (which secured regions on the two sides of the Niger River from the Atlantic Ocean to Lokoja) and in addition what might later come to be known as Northern Nigeria went under the control and organization of the British Empire.
On 1 January 1901, every one of the parts of advanced Nigeria turned into a British protectorate and was assembled into Lagos Colony, Niger Coast (otherwise called Oil River Protectorate), and the Northern Protectorate. Be that as it may, for simplicity of organization and control, the Northern Protectorate, and the Southern Protectorate (made up of Lagos Colony and Niger Coast) were amalgamated in 1914.
In this way appeared the nation by and by known as Nigeria. In 1897, the name “Nigeria” was authored by a writer, Miss Flora Shaw, from the name of the biggest stream of the district – the Niger waterway. She would later turn into the spouse of Frederick Lord Lugard.
The March Towards Independence
As time went on, the indigenous individuals of Nigeria began to call for freedom from British pioneer run the show. In the vicinity of 1922 and 1959, striking Nigerians like Sir Herbert Macaulay, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, Sir Ahmadu Bello, and Chief Anthony Enahoro to say a couple of drove the battle for Nigerian patriotism.
To permit Nigerians have some measure of control over the issues of their own territory, the British concocted distinctive constitutions in an offer to alleviate the sentiments of the general population. The constitutions incorporated the Clifford Constitution of 1922, the Richards Constitution of 1946, the Macpherson Constitution of 1951, and the Lyttleton Constitution of 1954. This however did not stop the consistent fuss for add up to freedom from pilgrim run the show.
Their battles later bore organic products in light of the fact that on October 27 1958, Britain concurred that Nigeria would turn into a free state; and at the turn of the time at 12am on October 1 1960, Nigeria turned into an autonomous nation. Consequently, the Union Jack – the British national banner – was brought down, and raised in its place was the new Nigerian banner; similarly as the national song of praise was changed from “God Save the Queen” to “Nigeria, We Hail Thee”.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was chosen as the principal Prime Minister, while Nnamdi Azikiwe turned into the new Governor-General. At the point when Nigeria turned into a republic in 1963, Azikiwe turned into the principal President.
Upon autonomy, Jaja Wachuku turned into the First dark Speaker of the Nigerian House of Representatives, supplanting Sir Frederick Metcalfe of Great Britain. Strikingly, as First Speaker of the House, he likewise got Nigeria’s Instrument of Independence – otherwise called Freedom Charter – on October 1, 1960, from Princess Alexandra of Kent, the Queen’s illustrative at the Nigerian autonomy functions.